Erzurum is the largest province in Eastern Anatolia of Turkey after Van. Erzurum situated almost 2000 meters above sea level has a population of 398.472 by 2010.Erzurum is famous for its historical monuments and winter sports facilities.
Erzurum as the largest city of Eastern Anatolia is predicted to be founded around 4900 BC. The region comprising Erzurum hosted many civilizations and was ruled by many nations like Hurries, Urartus, Cimmerians, Scythes, Medes, Persians, Parthes, Romans, Byzantines, Sassanides, Arabs, Seljuks, Mongols, Ilhanides, Safawides and Turks. This region was reigned by Seleucids after the death of Alexander. Later on by Roman Empire was the scene of the bloody wars between the Romans and Parthes. With the division of Roman Empire into two parts in 395, Erzurum which was included in parts of the Byzantine Empire changed hands between Byzantines Empires and the Sassanid for a number of times. The invasion of the region by the Hun State which was established on the North of Black Sea between years of 295-398 was the first entry of Turks into the region. In this period there was a city by the name Karin in the location of Erzurum and another city by the name Erzen on the West of Erzurum Plateau. Anatolius who was the general of the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius 2 who himself had taken the Erzurum region back from the Huns, had a castle built in the most strategic location of the region where Karin was located against the attacks that could come from Iran and Changed the name of the city as Theodosiopolis.
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, one of the key founders of the modern Turkish Republic, resigned from the Ottoman Army in Erzurum and was declared an "Honorary Native" and freeman of the city, which issued him his first citizenship registration and certificate of the new Turkish Republic.
Erzurum had a very quick improvement especially in Republican Period and it has still been the leading province in Eastern Anatolian region. Its traffic number plate and telephone codes are 25, 442 respectively.